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Discuss whether or not you agree or disagree with your peer regarding the need for additional information in order to place Michael in a special education program. Also, discuss how your views are similar or different from your peerâ€s view on the importance of standardized testing, including administration and scoring procedures conducted by Dr. Williams. 4 sentences or more. Attached is the pdf needed to complete the assignment.

Discuss the importance of intelligence testing and one of the controversies discussed in the article and/or the course textbook.
The importance of intelligence testing is to see where the child is intellectually so that if they are lacking revisions and special services can be created and assigned to them early on to best suit their needs and get them on track where they should be. I am happy that I had my son tested as he has a learning disability and this was one of the first steps to get him the appropriate help. Having an IEP based upon part of the results of his intelligence test performance has helped him to grow and advance.
According to Gottfredson and Saklofske (2009), one controversy lies within “the context of intellectual assessment,” due to the fact that “abilities are conceived as causes and achievements as outcomes” (p. 186). These authors state that both achievements and accomplishments can be observed whereas you cannot directly observe abilities (Gottfredson & Saklofske, 2009). Therefore, there is potential inconsistency in intelligence testing results.

Explain whether or not it would have been appropriate for Dr. Williams to provide some hints to help the child during testing. Why or why not?
I believe that it would not be appropriate for Dr. Williams to provide helpful hints because a false result might occur on the intelligence test. Offering hints does not help when measuring one’s intelligence because you are trying to measure out and collect the data on what that individual knows and does not know. Offering hints would project more of what Dr. Williams offered and not so much what the student knew and could think of on their own. Instead of offering hints a simple prompt could be to redirect the focus back to the test or a short break to stretch may be in order.

Discuss whether or not you believe an intelligence test would provide enough information to make a decision about Michaelâ€s educational placement. Why or why not? If not, what other information should Dr. Williams gather?
I believe that since the test was predominately mathematical; “remembering a string of randomly arranged digits,” arranging puzzle pieces, solving addition and subtraction problems that there would not be enough information to go off of (Farrar & Montgomery, 2015, ch. 10 intro). Some people are not mathematically inclined and learn in other ways. Perhaps the skills and concepts that Michael has previously learned were based on a different approach or method of learning that was not mathematical in nature. Michael may be very intelligent in other areas, and this would not be present in this style of intelligence test. Dr. Williams needs to gather other information from his parents to get an idea as to what they see at home, his teacher to see how he performs in school, and make his own observations as well.

Considering that Michael is a very young child, explain how his age could factor into the decision in favor of or against placement into a special education program.
Age and experience go hand in hand as you mature based on being exposed to more experiences which come with age. Environment and what a child is exposed to also play significant factors. I believe a test as the one mentioned in the case study, would not be developmentally appropriate if Michael was younger. I feel that he would struggle due to lack of exposure to such information and would be considered needing placement in a special education program.

Describe other factors (e.g., environmental, genetic, biological, etc.) that may be contributing to Michaelâ€s performance and IQ score during testing (without mentioning any diagnoses).
I would say that due to that fact that Michaelâ€s parents recently divorced, that his environmental factors are what is contributing to Michaelâ€s performance. Michael had some issues prior to the divorce which may suggest that there is some type of genetic or biological factor, but his symptoms have been exacerbated since the divorce which is an environmental factor (Farra & Montgomery, 2015). He may not be in a state of mind to focus on his performance and testing.

References
Farrar, M. J. & Montgomery, D. (2015). Cognitive development of children: Research and application [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

Gottfredson, L., & Saklofske, D. (2009). Intelligence: Foundations and issues in assessment. Canadian Psychology, 50(3), 183-195. doi:10.1037/a0016641

 
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