I have already started this paper… need someone to finish it asap as an emergency came up and I am not going to have enough time. DEADLINE IS IN 5 HOURS!
Running head: INTEGRATIVE 1
Integrative Personality Theory
PSY 330 Social Psychology
December 4, 2017
Integrative Personality Theory
Scientists that study human personality develop personality theories that provide possible reasons that explain why people may behave the in ways they do. American psychologist and theorist, Gordon Allport stated that “Personality is and does something… It is what lies behind specific acts and within the individual” (Carroll, 2010). It is said that human personality is a comprised of the genetic composition, the environmental influences, and experiences of an individual. However, one may exemplify a distinct and unique combination of these personality elements. This can eventually form over some time and may be expressed in specific ways that are unique to that particular individual exhibiting these traits. Is it also suggested that each person may develop components of his or her personality within dyadic relationships, such as friendships, romantic affairs, family, and relationships with colleagues, also while participating in leisure activities (Grob, 2016).
There are seven theoretical concepts of personality: psychodynamic, neurobiological, behavioral, cognitive / social, interpersonal / relational, trait, and self-psychology (humanism). These concepts may offer some insight to personality and how it was developed over time. The following definitions of each concept may also provide information regarding the importance of each theoretical concept as well as the impact they may have on the theories of personality. Each concept may be helpful in assessing the uniqueness of every person. These concepts may also be utilized in the development of a personal integrative personality theory.
I find Alfred Adler and his inferiority complex to be quite interesting. Adle’s theory appeared to be centered on the individuality of people. Adler, Freud, and Jung “are typically credited as the founding fathers of what is known as depth psychology, which emphasizes the psychodynamics of the unconscious” (Lecci, 2015). Adler separated from Freud and Jung in order to establish his school of individual psychology (Adler, 1923). He suggested that no single theory may capture the uniqueness of an individual. Adler recognized three essential social tasks that every individual would experience. These include: occupational tasks (careers), societal tasks (friendships), and love tasks (finding a long-term intimate partner) (Lecci, 2015). Additionally, Adler emphasized that a social motive is the basis of all human behavior as opposed to Freud and Jung’s theory of sexual and/ or aggressive motives. He suggested that the three tasks are essential to the growth and development of an individual’s personality (Lecci, 2015). They also appear to significantly affect the outcome of a person.
Adler’s concept of the inferiority complex suggests that every individual experiences and/ or struggles with feelings of inferiority, which are dependent on situational variables during a specific time. He also suggested that accepting such emotions are more important than becoming superior to others. The underlying cause of this inferiority may be low self-esteem. Acknowledging the possibility of low self-esteem might offer him or her the possibility to overcome the pessimistic view of oneself. It may be possible that low self-esteem is one of the primary causes of inferiority complex within children when dealing with adults (Adler, & Fleisher, 1988). Adler’s view of an individual’s inferiority complex helped him or her to understand that if the principal cause for such feelings is identified, such feelings may decrease or perhaps completely remove the feeling of inferiority (Lecci, 2015).
Unlike Freud, Adler focused on people’s ability to choose. He suggested that the freedom of choice could possibly give the person the ability to change, if need be. His theories with regard to power and will may be what brought about the positive psychology movement. Adler appeared to have a positive outlook on human psyche, as opposed to Freud, who had a more negative view on human nature (Lecci, 2015). Adler also proposed that “one’s relationships (or lack thereof) with siblings that were of greater relevance to personality development” (Lecci, 2015). Until other siblings are born, Adler’s belief that the oldest acquires his or her parent’s favoritism appears to be natural. On the other hand, his theory that the oldest sibling has a greater possibility of being incarcerated seems quite unlikely. According to Adler, all siblings exemplify specific, individual qualities, dependent on the order in which they are born. However, this is difficult to confirm as the sequence of births, as a variable, is almost impossible to study (Lecci, 2015).
Hans Selye was a Hungarian-Canadian endocrinologist known for revolutionizing the neurobiological concept. He developed his stress model, the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), which is comprised of three stages in which the body uses in response to stress. First is the alarm reaction stage, when the fight-or-flight response is activated. During this stage, natural reaction prepares an individual to either defend oneself or flee in a dangerous situation. The heart rate increases, the adrenal gland releases the stress hormone, cortisol, and a boost of adrenaline is received, increasing energy. The second stage is resistance. After the initial shock of a stressful situation and following the alarm reaction stage, the body begins to mend itself. Lower levels of cortisol are released and the heart rate begins to normalize. This is considered the recovery stage in which the body begins to normalize itself; however, it will remain on high alert for some time. When stress is overcome, the body will repair itself until the heart rate, blood pressure, and hormone levels are returned to its pre-stress state. On the other hand, if stress is not resolved and the body remains on high alert, it learns to adapt and adjust to living with higher levels of stress. The third stage is exhaustion. This is the result of prolonged or chronic stress. High levels of continuous stress can have debilitating effects. The body can become depleted, the immune system impaired, and the individual may lose the ability to function (Lecci, 2015). Selye (1953) suggests that prolonged stress at high levels may result in mental confusion caused by maladaptation.
Stress is experienced in everyday life. Ongoing stress can hinder the brain’s ability to shut down the cortisol response. This can cause various mental and/or physical illnesses, such as chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia (Mendelson, 2013).
From the Trait model, I
The Stability and Change of Personality
There are various theoretical models that would state that personality is stable. Various researchers “have devoted a significant part of their careers to establishing that personality is stable” (Lecci, 2015). I find this concept to be unacceptable as people tend to constantly undergo changes, dependent on various situations and circumstances.
Healthy and Unhealthy Personalities
Science appears to have some difficulty providing answers with regard to healthy and unhealthy personalities may be. Those with a considerably healthy personality may understand their environment and see the differences within various situations. Additionally, they are more likely to respond sensibly to stressful situations, manage stressors, and acknowledge possible dangerous situations. On the other hand, those with a relatively unhealthy personality may react in a manner opposite those with a healthy personality as they may not possess the ability to control their thought processes within stressful situations.
Heredity, the Environment, and Epigenetics
Heredity, the environment, and epigenetics play a significant role in the development of human personality. A good example may be the ongoing debate of nature versus nurture. It is still unknown if nature or nurture plays the larger role in the development of an individual’s personality. Many people exhibit traits similar to that of their parents; however, they also develop their own traits that are dependent on their environmental influences and experiences.
Assessment and Measurement
Adler, A. (1923). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace.
Adler, A., & Fleisher, L. (1988). The Child’s Inner Life and a Sense of Community.
Individual Psychology: The Journal Of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice, 44(4), 417.
Carroll, G., K. (2010). An Examination of the Relationship Between Personality Type, Self Perception Accuracy and Transformational Leadership Practices of Female Hospital
Leaders. Retrieved from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=bgsu1288189512&disposition=inline
Grob, A. (2016). Co-development in personality in close relationships. European Psychologist, 21(4), 233-236. doi:10.1027/1016-9040/a000273 Lecci, L. (2015). Personality. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
Mendelson, S. (2013). The Lasting Damage of Child Abuse. Huffington Post.
Selye, H. (1953). The General-Adaptation-Syndrome in its Relationships to Neurology, Psychology, and Psychopathology. Contributions toward medical psychology: Theory and psychodiagnostic methods, Vol 1, 234-274.
I have attached the work I have completed so far…
Details are as follows:
Integrative Personality Theory
For your final paper, you will complete the rest of the assignment which you began in week three and create your own theory of personality development by synthesizing the concepts and constructs of all the theories that seem most accurate and appropriate to you and by using those concepts to reflect on your own personality and development. Remember to use the template provided to guide you through the steps.
Research a minimum of eight scholarly sources related to these concepts in the Ashford University Library to support your statements in the paper. Popular websites and your textbook may augment, but they will not count toward, the minimum number of sources needed for the paper. The following content and headings must be included in your paper.
Please visit the Ashford Writing Center for guidance on how to format headings in APA Style. Also, please take note of the suggestions provided for the length for each section in the instructions below.
Provide a general introduction to the topic of theories of personality. Explain what you plan to cover and describe the direction your paper will take. This section will not feature a heading, and it will be approximately two to three paragraphs.
In this section, you will present the seven specific concepts identified from the seven models you think best apply to the study of personality in distinct subheadings. For each concept, identify the major personality model from which the concept was taken as well as the theorist associated with that model. This completed section will be approximately four to five pages.
In this section, present the concepts you have chosen to exclude in your theory of personality development. Reflect on the basic assumptions that define personality and identify three specific excluded concepts from any of the theories studied in the course. For each of the excluded concepts, provide a rationale explaining the various aspects of the concept that make it unsuitable for your use. This section will be approximately one to two pages.
The Differences between Healthy and Unhealthy Personalities
Describe the basic differences between healthy and unhealthy personality, based on the concepts that you have chosen to include and exclude from your theory. This completed section will be approximately one page.
The Roles of Heredity, the Environment, and Epigenetics
Provide your analysis of the roles heredity, the environment, and epigenetics play in the development of personality. Discuss how heredity and the environment might affect personality disorders. This completed section will be approximately one page.
Assessment and Measurement of the Theory
Reflect on the major concepts you have selected for inclusion and provide a brief description about how those concepts are measured and/or assessed. Review the assessment sections of each chapter and discuss those measures you think are most applicable and effective. This completed section will be approximately one page.
In this section of the paper, review the self-reflection you wrote in Week One of this class and describe how and in what ways your views have or have not changed. Analyze your Week One self-assessment using the concepts that you have included in your integrative theory and describe how your theory explains your personality. This section will be approximately one page.
Provide a brief conclusion that summarizes the ideas presented in your integrative theory of personality. This section will not feature a heading and it will be approximately two to four paragraphs.
Allport, G. W. (1968). The person in psychology: Selected essays. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
The Integrative Personality Theory paper:
Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length (not including the title page and references page) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Must include a separate title page with the following:
Title of paper
Course name and number
Must use at least eight scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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