Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please review the following websites, and read the following required articles:
Ethical Decision Making
The Difference Between Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors
To Tell or Not to Tell: The Fine Line Between Minors’ Privacy and Others’ Right to Know
Play the expert in the following scenario and apply ethical decision-making to your rationale and actions. Be mindful of section F in the “ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors” (p. 8):
When faced with an ethical dilemma, school counselors and school counseling program directors/supervisors use an ethical decision-making model such as Solutions to Ethical Problems in Schools (STEPS) (Stone, 2001):
Define the problem emotionally and intellectually
Apply the ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors and the law
Consider the students’ chronological and developmental levels
Consider the setting, parental rights and minors’ rights
Apply the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, nonmaleficence, loyalty and justice
Determine potential courses of action and their consequences
Evaluate the selected action
Implement the course of action
You are a school counselor at a rural high school. You have been counseling a student, and he confided in you that one of his friends has recently engaged in sexual relations with one of the teacher’s daughters. (She is a friend of yours.) He does not divulge the name of the other student and refuses to talk any further about the issue.
Address the following:
What ethical considerations must be considered in this situation?
How does confidentiality affect your considerations and actions?
What options might you have to address the situation?
Ethically, since this is hearsay, are you legally obligated to address?
Using appropriate citations and references, explain how the empirical research, theoretical models, and ethical standards presented in the assigned resources suggest the importance of applying ethical decision-making strategies to scenarios such as these.
Meiseller, D. (2020). Difference between deductive and inductive reasoning. https://danielmiessler.com/blog/the-difference-between-deductive-and-inductive-reasoning/
ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors. (2016). https://www.schoolcounselor.org/getmedia/f041cbd0-7004-47a5-ba01-3a5d657c6743/Ethical-Standards.pdf
Carlson, N. (2017). To tell or not to tell: The fine line between minors’ privacy and others’ right to know (Links to an external site.). https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=2ahUKEwiwuLC7-73pAhVVj54KHSMQAWcQFjABegQIDBAD&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.counseling.org%2Fdocs%2Fdefault-source%2Fethics%2Fethics-columns%2Fethics_october-2017_minor-privacy.pdf%3Fsfvrsn%3Da25522c_6&usg=AOvVaw0kYOxrz1puzlnuMbSY9THu
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Ethical Decision-Making In this module, we provide some guiding principles, and pathways to help guide ethical decision-making. These are a series of basic questions that should be asked when confronted with ethical dilemmas. These are often complex situations with no clear-cut resolution, and without a right or wrong answer. But these decision-making processes will go a long way towards helping all of us make informed decisions that can justify consequent actions.
Ethical Reasoning Can Be Taught: Ethical reasoning is a way of thinking about issues of right and wrong. Processes of reasoning can be taught, and school is an appropriate place to teach them. the reason that, although parents and religious schools may teach ethics, they don ot always teach ethical reasoning. See the article by: Sternberg, Robert J. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning in Liberal Education. Liberal Education 96.3 (2010): 32-37.
And, like learning to play baseball or play the violin, it’s important to practice early and often. So, let’s get started:
Beneficence is the concept that scientific research should have as a goal the welfare of society. It is rooted in medical research, the central tenet is “do no harm” (and corollaries remove harm, prevent harm, optimize benefits, “do good”). For a more expansive introduction to beneficence, see the essay on The Principles of Beneficence in Applied Ethics from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Some simple guiding questions in applying the concept of beneficence to ethical dilemmas include:
Who benefits? Who are the stakeholders? Who are the decision-makers? Who is impacted? What are the risks?
Take a look at the video on Causing Harm–“Causing harm explores the different types of harm that may be caused to people or groups and the potential reasons we may have for justifying these harms.” From “Ethics Unwrapped”, McCombs School of Business, University of Texas-Austin.
A 7-STep Guide to Ethical Decision-Making
The following is a summary of: Seven-step guide to ethical decision-making (Davis, M. (1999) Ethics and the university, New York: Routledge, p. 166-167.
1. State the problem. For example, “there’s something about this decision that makes me uncomfortable” or “do I have a conflict of interest?”.
2. Check the facts. Many problems disappear upon closer examination of the situation, while others change radically. For example, persons involved, laws, professional codes, other practical constraints
3. Identify relevant factors (internal and external). 4. Develop a list of options.
Be imaginative, try to avoid “dilemma”; not “yes” or” no” but whom to go to, what to say. 5. Test the options. Use some of the following tests:
harm test: Does this option do less harm than the alternatives? publicity test: Would I want my choice of this option published in the newspaper? defensibility test: Could I defend my choice of this option before a congressional committee or committee of peers? reversibility test: Would I still think this option was a good choice if I were adversely affected by it? colleague test: What do my colleagues say when I describe my problem and suggest this option as my solution? professional test: What might my profession’s governing body for ethics say about this option? organization test: What does my company’s ethics officer or legal counsel say about this?
6. Make a choice based on steps 1-5. 7. Review steps 1-6. How can you reduce the likelihood that you will need to make a similar decision again?
Are there any cautions you can take as an individual (and announce your policy on question, job change, etc.)? Is there any way to have more support next time? Is there any way to change the organization (for example, suggest policy change at next departmental meeting)?
[Having made a decision based on the process above, are you now prepared to ACT?]
Ethical Decision-Making Model based on work by Shaun Taylor.
A Seven Step Process for Making Ethical Decisions–An example from the “Orientation to Energy and Sustainability Policy” course at Penn State.
Additional Approaches to Ethical Decision Making
Shaun Taylor’s presentation: Geoethics Forums (PowerPoint 2007 (.pptx) 380kB Jun11 14), given at the 2014 Teaching GeoEthics workshop, provided a simple model to help students engage Ethical Decision-Making that includes a) the context/facts of the situation, b) the stakeholders, c) the decision-makers, d) these inform a number of alternate choices, e) that are mediated through the evaluation of impacts and negotiations among the parties, that lead to f) selection of an optimal choice. Taylor provides guidance for what makes a good ethical dilemma discussion, including:
Trust, respect, disagreement without personal attacks Being judgmental vs. making a judgment Emphasize process vs. conclusion Uncertainty is OK Description then prescription
Teaching Activity: GeoEthics Forums–The Grey Side of Green (a guide for ethics decision making)
Daniel Vallero also addressed ethical decision making in his presentation at the 2014 Teaching GeoEthics workshop, and defines this 6-step approach to ethical decision making:
1. State or define the problem/issue 2. Gather information (“facts”) from all sides 3. Delineate all possible resolutions. 4. Apply different values, rules, principles, regulations to the different options. 5. Resolve conflicts among values, rules, etc. 6. Make a decision and act.
The Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University provides additional context and advice for ethical decision- making. They have identified five sources of ethical standards (the utilitarian approach, the rights approach, the fairness or justice approach, the common good approach, and the virtue approach.Their framework for Ethical Decision making includes: Recognize the Ethical Issue, Get the Facts, Evaluate Alternative Actions, Make a Decision and Test it, Act and Reflect on the Outcome.
Reviews of the literature on ethical decision-making can be found at:
O’Fallon, M.J., and Butterfield, K.D., 2005, A Review of the Empirical Ethical Decision-Making Literature: 1996-2003, Journal of Business Ethics vol 59 #4, p. 375-413; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-2929-7 Robert C. Ford and Woodrow D. Richardson (2013) Ethical Decision Making: A Review of the Empirical Literature, In: Michalos A., Poff D. (eds) Citation Classics from the Journal of Business Ethics. Advances in Business Ethics Research (A Journal of Business Ethics Book Series), vol 2. Springer, Dordrecht Cottone, R. R. and Claus, R. E. (2000), Ethical Decisionâ€Making Models: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78: 275-283. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2000.tb01908.x
The American Counseling Association has published their A Practitioner’s Guide to Ethical Decision Making (Acrobat (PDF) 20kB Jun18 18) (1995) authored by Holly Forester-Miller, Ph.D. and Thomas Davis, Ph.D.
Assessment of Ethical Reasoning, Values, Moral Thinking
Assessment–Measuring Students’ Moral Development — from the Illinois Institute of Technology, Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions (suggestions on types of graded assignments, advice on grading assignments, assessment of program effectiveness, and a bibliography) Assessment and Evaluation — from the National Academy of Engineering, Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science; — recommended criteria and rubrics for assessing student learning and an annotated bibliography! Ethical Reasoning Value Rubric — from the Association of American Colleges and Universities Ethics Assessment Rubric — from the University of Minnesota-Duluth, School of Business Ethical Reasoning in Action: Validity Evidence for the Ethical Reasoning Identification Test (ERIT)–Smith, K., Fulcher, K. & Sanchez, E.H. J Bus Ethics (2015). doi:10.1007/s10551-015-2841-8
Carpenter, D. D., Harding, T. S., Finelli, C. J., & Passow, H. J. (2004). Does academic dishonesty relate to unethical behavior in professional practice? An exploratory study. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10(2), 311â€”324.
Ethics and Environmental Justice resources from across Teach the Earth »
Ethics and Environmental Justice resources from across Teach the Earth »
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